Information On Casting Sand And Green Sand Or Foundry Sand


Image by firemind

Green Sand: Green sand is also called as foundry sand or molding sand. This is utilized for sand casting. When this sand is oiled or moistened, it has a tendency to pack well and retain the shape. Green sand is a mix of pulverized coal, water, bentonite clay and sand. Out of these four components, the biggest part is that of the sand. There are several proportions of these four components. The different ratios are used to adjust the surface finish, moldability and capacity of the hot molten metal to degas. The prime use of this sand is in the metal casting. The coal is usually called as sea coal in foundries. The amount of sea coal is less than 5 percent. It undergoes partial combustion when there is molten metal present and this causes offgassing of organic vapors.

Green sand is stored in flasks (as the casters call the container). These are boxes that do not have a bottom or lid. This box is divided into two half parts and these are connected together. These halves are called as the top or cope and bottom or drag flask.

As per its name, green sand is not green in color. The word “green” is used as it is used in the wet state.

Casting Sand: Some casting sands are oil bonded and foundry mix sand. This is a mixing of oil, resin and sharp fine silica sand. Such a mix can be utilized in sand casting of all varieties of metals. Some casting sands consist of 20 percent more oil and resin as compared to other brands. The objective is to ascertain the best mix for maximum green power and the best finish for the surface, that is possible.

The oil bonded sand is a substitute for water bonded green sands to be used for casting sand. The advantage over traditional, older sands is that as water is absent, the sand does not steam like the traditional sands. This sand is more secure to use than green sand. The reason is that potentially explosive quantities of steam are not generated. Due to this dearth of steam generation and the smooth texture of the sand, the oil bonded sand results in a smoother surface finish. The novice can use these sands and get professional results.

Use of casting sand: The same techniques, patterns and tools that are used for water bonded sands can be used for oil bonded casting sands. As the sand has better adhesive properties, there are fewer hassles with loose sand in the impression. The difference is that water cannot be used to manage loose sections. However, as the self adhesion is better, there are fewer problems of crumbling.

When the oil comes in contact with molten metal, it does not burn. When the castings are being shaken out, it is advisable to take off the sand that is burned. This sand that is burned can then be mixed again in the pile of fresh sand. It reabsorbs oil and works very well. After repeated use of this sand, the oil gets depleted. In this case, around 30W of non-detergent motor oil can be used to reload the sand with oil.

Go to Metal Casting Zone to get your free ebook on Metal Casting at Metal Casting. Metal Casting Zone also has Electric Arc Furnace Information, Blast Furnace Information and a Metal Casting Blog with daily news on Metal Casting. You can Find Metal Casting Zone at

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MEMS: A Tiny Package With Potential To Revolutionize Every Field of Technology


Foundry 6
Image by Greg Woodhouse Photography

Micro-electromechanical systems, more frequently known by the acronym MEMS, are micro devices which can be used as sensors, valves, gears, mirrors, actuators, and more. Most often combined with, or comprising, a microprocessor, they make possible the collection and transmission of data in a miniscule package. MEMS foundry companies have experienced significant growth in the last two years, as the almost unlimited number of possible applications across many industries has become more evident.

The automotive industry was the first to apply MEMS technologies in high volume. In the 1990s, they were devised as airbag accelerometers. The small size, low cost, and high sensitivity were the features that made it possible. Prior to this, airbag deployment required the installation of bulky components and relatively expensive electronics. MEMS technology costs a fifth as much, and the small size results in a quicker response.
With airbag deployment, fractions of a second can make a difference. It is MEMS micro devices that have made side impact airbags feasible. Smart airbags, which respond differently depending on the size and weight of the person in the vehicle, are the next step and are already being developed.

The medical applications of MEMS are significant as well. Tiny pressure sensors have been widely used for monitoring during childbirth, during eye surgery, in ventilators, and in dialysis machines. Disposable blood pressure transducers have significantly reduced costs for intensive care patients. Microchips for the analysis of skin’s physical and chemical condition have been developed for use by physicians, pharmacies, and cosmeticians. In the laboratory, MEMS has made it possible for testing equipment to be made both smaller and more sensitive. They are used in monitoring equipment for radiation and biological hazards. All these technologies have improved quality of patient care, while reducing costs.

The technology is also used for micronozzles in ink-jet printers and as mirrors in video projection equipment. The defense industry has devised a number of uses for MEMS, including environmental monitoring, munitions guidance, and navigation. It has also been used for monitoring border control.

A number of new applications are in development in MEMS companies for various industries. Incorporated into thermostats, they will greatly improve the energy efficiency of home and industrial heating and air conditioning. Tiny, inexpensive GPS devices in courier packages will provide real-time tracking without dependence on manual scanning, and will gather information about package handling, including temperature excursions and shock detection.

The future will also bring smart roads which gather and transmit data about road conditions, so repairs can be made before conditions become serious or dangerous. MEMS embedded in roads will also transmit data to the GPS in vehicles, keeping drivers abreast of road hazards, traffic, and accidents. In airplane wings, they’ll respond to air currents and adjust air flaps instantaneously, improving efficiency and safety.

With the number of possible uses expanding every day, MEMS foundry companies are poised to become a major growth industry over the next decade. From automotive and medical applications, to temperature control, safety and transportation uses, nanotechnology in these micro devices has the potential to revolutionize every field and to positively affect every day life across the globe.

Jessica entered the Semiconductor Manufacturing field in 1998. Jessica has held positions at Integrated Micromachines and Xponent Photonics prior to founding Rogue Valley Microdevices, specializing in silicon wafers and establishing it as one of the leading MEMS fabrication and manufacturing facilities.

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Foundry Equipments As Well As Resources Employed In Foundry Technology

There are various types of foundry devices and foundry supplies that are commonly used in the task of metal casting, investment casting, aluminium die casting and several other kinds of foundry castings. Most of the foundry equipments and supplies include a wide range of molding machines and mixtures, furnaces, transporters, ladles and large stock of metals and alloys, chemical binding products, special types of sand castings, abrasives stabilizers and filters.

These foundry equipments and materials also comprise a bevy of improved techniques and machinery that are required to fulfill the task of metal casting. The usual process of metal casting involves melting metals in kilns and then dispensing the hot molten metals into the metal cast to give it the preferred shape or create different types of foundry products. The foundry materials may comprise of huge stock of chemical substances which are widely used to hold together different types of alloys and specialty sands to make the molds. This special variety of sand is called as green sand and they are commonly used in most foundry workshops as it is specially prepared to retain the shape much better compared to normal sand.

A metal foundry may be focused in creating foundry products of a specific metal or have special furnaces and other foundry devices and supplies which are largely made for the specific techniques. There may be other foundries that may deal in foundry castings with use of different kinds of metals and alloys, which might include wide range of iron foundry, zinc foundry, aluminum foundry, bronze foundry, copper foundry, brass foundry and more.

In foundry technology there are several types of metal castings, the most common procedure is that liquefied metals are poured inside molds made of casting sand and when the metal has hardened they are removed from the castings. Mostly the casting sand is water based or even oil based. The water based sand casts are also called green casts, which are made by blending moist mixture of clay and sand. There are various other sorts of foundries and each foundry may use specific or combination of different models of foundry device and foundry supplies.

The iron foundry for example may use blast furnace which is more commonly termed as Cupola. Bronze and brass foundries may normally have gas heated kiln or electrical induction furnace. Foundry devices and supplies may also include machinery and materials such as injection molding or investment casting gadgets. Investment casting is also popularly termed as lost wax casting. In this process, usually wax and other thermoplastic supplies are used to make different kinds of foundry items.

There are plenty of foundry networks that provide huge job opportunities to large number of qualified professionals. Most of the foundry jobs may include suitable post as foundry engineers, foundry technicians, foundry auditors, administrative heads and other rewarding positions.

To find out more information about metal casting and more on aluminium be sure to visit us today.

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Different Types Of Foundry Equipments And Supplies Used In Foundry Technology Today


Image by [dac~ ]
taken at the foundry, london

There’re many kinds of foundry equipment and foundry supplies that are extensively used in the process of metal casting, investment casting, die casting and various other sorts of foundry castings. Most of the foundry equipments and supplies include a wide range of molding machines and mixtures, furnaces, transporters, ladles and huge stock of metals & alloys, chemical binding products, special sorts of sand castings, abrasives additives and filters.

Those foundry equipments and supplies also comprise a bevy of superior techniques and machinery which are required to fulfill the task of metal casting. The normal process of metal casting involves melting metals in furnaces and then pouring the hot molten metals into the metal cast to give it the desired shape or create many kinds of foundry products. The foundry supplies may comprise of huge stock of chemical compounds which are extensively used to hold together different types of alloys and specialty sands to make the molds.

This special type of sand is named green sand and they’re usually used in most foundry plants as it’s specifically formulated to retain the shape much better than ordinary sand. A metal foundry may be specialized in creating foundry products of a specific metal or have special furnaces and any other foundry tools and supplies that are largely designed for the certain procedures. There may be other foundries which may deal in foundry castings with use of various types of metals and alloys, which might include vast number of iron foundry, zinc foundry, aluminum foundry, bronze foundry, copper foundry, brass foundry and a lot more.

In foundry technology there’re various kinds of metal castings, the most common procedure is that molten metals are poured inside molds made of casting sand and when the metal has solidified they’re removed from the castings. Sometimes the casting sand is water based or oil based. The water based sand casts are also referred to as green casts, that are made by combining moist mixture of clay and sand. There’re various sorts of foundries and every of the foundry may use particular or combination of different types of foundry equipment and foundry supplies.

The iron foundry for example may use blast furnace that is more commonly termed as Cupola. Bronze and brass foundries may generally have gas heated furnace or electrical induction furnace. Foundry equipments and supplies may also include machinery and resources like injection molding or investment casting gadgets. Investment casting is also usually termed as lost wax casting. In this process, generally wax and other thermoplastic supplies are used to make different types of foundry products.

There are a lot of foundry networks that provide huge job opportunities to large number of skilled professionals. Majority of the foundry work could include suitable post as foundry engineers, foundry technicians, foundry auditors, operational heads and any other lucrative positions.

To find out more about foundry work and different foundry technology that is used these days, visit us now.

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Creating Multiple Things From Carbon


Old Elgin Foundry
Image by coollessons2004(almost completely off)
From a 25 year old 35mm print and scanned. This was a window in a foundry located across the river from the previous shot. The foundry is gone now, replaced by a park.

You can produce several different forms of items out of graphite, like graphite lubricants, brake linings, refractories and also in steelmaking. This mineral is known to have so many uses, which makes it the most suitable raw material for several goods. What actually is graphite?

Graphite is a mineral that is regarded as the most stable carbon form there is. Because of this difference, it is used as the base when finding out the heat of formation of different carbon compounds. It is among the allotropes of carbon, which also includes diamond, amorphous carbon, lonsdaeleite, buckytube, plus three more.

Natural graphite comes in three principal types:

1. Amorphous graphite – this form is the product of coal’s thermal metamorphism. It comes in the form of fine particles. It is also called meta-anthracite.

2. Flake graphite – this form is also named crystalline flake graphite. It is usually plane and has six sided, angular or uneven edges.

3. Vein graphite – this variety is also known as lump graphite. It looks like a huge mass of fibrous crystalline combination and is normally found in fissure fractures and veins. It is persumed to be produced hydrothermally.

Graphite has many properties that make it distinguishable from any other minerals and alltropes of carbon. Initially, if you look at its molecules in a microscopic level, its atoms develop a hexagonal pattern with a fixed space between the planes. Second, it is capable of conducting electric power because its carbon deposits are highly electron delocalized. Third, it has got thermal and acoustic abilities. Lastly, it has impressive dry lubricating and self-lubricating properties, making it in demand in many businesses.

Graphite may be original or manufactured. Natural graphite is commonly widely used to make steel, rafractories, expanded graphite, foundry facings lubricants and graphite lubricants. Synthetic graphite, on the other hand, is often being used in electrodes, neutron moderator, powder and scrap, and RCCs or reinforced carbon-carbon products, like gold clubs, pool cue sticks, fishing rods, and bicycle frames.

Throughout the world, there are several graphite mining quarries and areas. In Sri Lanka, there is an underground location where lump or vein graphite can be extracted. Machineries and equipment like bulldozers are used to quarry the ore and extract the graphite.

To be able to acquire graphite and manufacture it to create various goods, different methods and techniques are being used. Of course, tools and machines are also a necessity to make everything easier and faster.

To Find Out More information on foundry facings lubricant as well as graphite lubricants visit us today.

Turn common plumbing materials into a metal melting propane torch, and instantly convert your “flower-pot” foundry, to propane.

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Two different friends that let me study the propane torches they made from designs found on the internet. After experimenting independently, I developed the two designs into this hybrid.

WARNING: Propane torches are not toys, and must be treated with caution and respect. Flames can reach temperatures upwards of 2,000ºC, which is well above the melting point of hobbyists. Working with power tools poses risks of personal injury. This project should only be attempted with adequate knowledge and training, and under constant adult supervision. Have fun, but always think ahead, and remember that any project you try is at YOUR OWN RISK.

Project History & More Info:

A year after I made my charcoal foundry (, a friend named Chris came by to visit, and to show me a foundry he’d made out of a propane tank, and refractory cement. His was more expensive to construct, but was made to last longer, and he powered it with propane instead of charcoal.

He said the burner plans he followed were the common “Ron Reil” design, which for some reason I had never heard of. He hadn’t tested his foundry yet, so I got one of my brass ingots and a crucible, and we fired it up.

I was amazed that in just over 2 minutes, we’d completely melted the brass ingot, and there was no charcoal dust flying around, no mess inside the foundry, and we didn’t have to stop and keep adding more fuel every 5 minutes. This rekindled my interest for backyard metalworking, and I decided right there that I needed to have a propane conversion, and a new foundry.

I bought the plumbing parts from Home Depot with intentions to build the torch, but they just sat on my worktable for months as I worked on developing other projects first.

After a considerable amount of time, a young man named Shadrick came to my house with a group of other boys who were interested in seeing some of my projects. Shad noticed the plumbing parts on my table and asked if I was making a propane burner, and I said I intended to but hadn’t got around to it. To my surprise, he let me know he’d made a propane foundry himeself and had been using it to forge steel, melt aluminum, and make knives for over a year.

Shad was good enough to let me spend a couple hours at his house seeing his foundry in operation, then let me borrow his burner assembly to study it in my shop.

I noticed his assembly was completely different from the one Chris had, and since I really didn’t have much idea of how propane burners worked at all, I was interested in reverse engineering the science behind it.

In experimenting, I realized that the purpose of the burner was to mix certain amounts of fuel and air to achieve the hottest temperature possible, and the cleanest burn.

I played with different lengths of tubing, and stumbled on the realization that by controlling the air-flow through the intake port, I could adjust the flame completely, and use any length of pipe I wanted. I also noticed that without a nozzle on the end, the burner wouldn’t work.

I quickly developed some prototypes for an air regulator design I made from the lid of a tuna can, and it worked perfectly!

My final design was a hybrid of the two systems, with most of the plumbing parts based around the Ron Reil assembly, and the rest based on the connections I saw on Shad’s system.

I was going to build a new foundry, designed to last longer than sand and plaster, but when I realized the propane torch worked just fine in the mini metal foundry I made before, I decided there was no need. And considering so many people have already made the plaster foundry, this simple propane burner gives the option of switching the foundry between propane, or charcoal, with no modifications required.
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Spokane Industries Precision Investment Castings Division


Foundry 5
Image by Greg Woodhouse Photography

Manufacturing Design Engineers often specify machining metal parts out of stock material that in practicality would be more cost effective and efficiently produced as an Investment Casting. This happens because of the familiarity and abundance of machining facilities compared to the less understood advantages and relatively small quantity of Investment Casting operations. Similarly, parts designed as fabrications are often well suited to conversion to castings. In that never-ending quest to increase efficiencies and lower costs, companies are discovering the value Investment Castings can bring to their product lines.

SPOKANE INDUSTRIES, through our Precision Investment Castings Division, specializes in bringing near net shape casting production to the marketplace. SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS can minimize dimensional tolerances without machining or other subcontracting methods so that you may have a finished product ready for rapid assembly. Were able to produce parts that weigh as little as a few grams up to 80 pounds. In many cases, injecting multiple pieces or several different parts in a single die saves additional operations and reduces costs.

SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS offers an almost endless array of alloys. Precipitation Hardening Alloys, Carbon Steels, Low Alloy, 17-4, Tool Steels, Silicon Brass, 300 and 400 Series Stainless Steels, and most other air melts are common. We offer an endless number of commercial applications from the dental, military, food, automotive, and oil industries, to name a few. Our real forte is to get involved at the engineering genesis by taking multiple metal components that may currently be machined or fabricated and design them together. We can then create a single near net shape casting. This eliminates multiple operations, saves money, time and energy – to bring savings to the bottom line for our customers.

Converting fabrications to castings brings a multitude of benefits to a manufacturer. Investment Castings can oftentimes be designed much stronger, with less material, creating less weight and at the same time lower failure rates. In addition, where there are multiple parts creating a fabrication, a single casting can often times be designed to do the entire job. This results in assembly time savings, lower overhead, simplified workflow and improves uniformity and aesthetics.

SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS workforce is highly cross-trained. Employees are encouraged to move from department to department throughout our production areas where strong visual and written controls facilitate process standardization. SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS has implemented Lean Manufacturing processes where continuous improvement is ongoing and reducing variables ultimately drives lower costs.

SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS is augmented by in-house capabilities including machining, full dimensional layout, x-ray, spectrometer and Non-Destructive Testing of mechanical properties. We also perform Magnetic Particle Inspection, liquid penetrant and utilize heat-treat facilities both internally and contractually.

SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS has been for 18 years part of the Spokane Industries family. Since 1952 SPOKANE INDUSTRIES, its parent company, has been in the foundry. This offers full access to a large and diversified engineering department with the latest in CAD/CAM and Flow Test Analysis. We accept as well a large array of electonic files as well as your CAD/CAM files so that we can rapidly prototype and meet your specifications and schedules.

Jeff Kuntz, Spokane Precision Castings Production Manager states, SPOKANE PRECISION CASTINGS has been working with industries from military grade castings ” like Class II Armor Certified, to dental equipment castings with high esthetic appeal. Were accustomed to producing quantities that range from low volume/high variety to commodity products that range up to 80 thousand Investment Castings every month. Our goal is to exceed the customers expectations at every opportunity.

The combination of our in-house capabilities along with some local strategic partners help us stand alone in the marketplace and adds to our ability to help our customers meet their ever changing needs. Starting with our customers drawings and vision, we strive to meet all of your Investment Casting needs.

Bottom line ” faster R & D, first articles get to you faster and ultimately saves you time and money. Isnt that what its really all about?

As you investigate solutions for your Investment Casting needs, find all of your Precision Investment Castings solutions at Spokane Precision Castings. Quality, diversity, timeliness – the bottom line in Quality Precision Investment Castings.

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Various Aspects and Advantages of Silicon Carbide Foam Filter for Foundries


the foundry
Image by scottfeldstein
Vignetted and gaven an antique-y color scheme.

The manufacturing industries utilize various kinds of metals, alloys and other composition materials to manufacture different products. One of those is molten iron and its alloys which require filtration for further manufacturing. The ceramic foam filter is used for the filtration in various steel and other foundries too. Due to the raw nature of ores, there are several impurities in them and hence, those need to remove for quality casting of the products. They are used to filter the metal in the die cast machines before filling in the mould. It also simplifies the method of casting, improves yield and reduces the time spent in the entire process.

Different aspects of foundry filter

The following describes the different aspects of SiC ceramic foam filter used in the foundries:-
Properties: There are few important properties that are required in these filters for the processes. First of all, the filter must be made of materials which can resist the optimum thermal attack and also it should not get corroded due the molten metal. Corrosion, creeping, breaking down of the filtration material would entirely fail the process. Those should withstand the initial priming head. The SiC ceramic foam filter should have stable physical and chemical properties to ensure quality filtration process. It must comply with the high temperature too.

Specifications: While ordering the filters for the foundry purposes, there are certain specifications that have to be checked categorically at first. The porosity of the filter must have a higher percentage in terms of void space in the material and if not high, they should at least match to the industry standards. Compressive strength has to be checked out in order to know the filter’s capacity to withstand. Filter’s thermal resistance gives information about the toleration of molten metal poured over it.

Types: The ceramic foam filter is available in various types and dimensional specifications. Some of the widely used ones are alumina for aluminum filtration and casting, Silicon carbide ceramic filters for iron and iron alloy castings, Zirconia filters for casting steel and stainless steel filtration. Similarly, Chromia and Magnesia materials are used for copper and magnesium alloys filtration procedures respectively.

Benefits: There are several advantages of using foundry filter for the filtration processes. First of all, it helps in removal of impurities and inclusions and along with that it reduces splashing and turbulence which may form oxides and sand erosions at the lower part. It offers various methods of scrap control as it lowers the scrap level percentage and prevents unwanted expenses and hence, increases the productivity. It produces great quality castings which have improved finishing, surface details and appearance. Consistency in the castings is very important for manufacturing. Following these automatically the rejection rate will get reduced by a higher percentage and also it would cost less to machine the castings.

These filters can be ordered in custom sizes and shapes with respect to the requirements in the machines. Orders must be made by verifying all of the specification details.

Julia Jones is an expert chemical engineer and has years of experience in producing sic ceramic foam filter with leading agencies. His tips on use of foundry filter help the manufacturers to boost their productivity.
For more information visit us:- Zirconia Ceramic Foam Filter For Steel Foundries

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All Loot from WOW Blackrock Foundry Increases 5 Levels


Image by ushishir

Blizzard has announced that, next week items dropping from all difficulties of the Blackrock Foundry raid will receive a +5 level increase, including those you already own. You can be able to buy wow cheap pet and mounts from Wowtoes to march for increases BRF items.

In the past few months, some groups devoted themselves to Highmaul and also had an average item level. It caused that they were not that interested in the loot dropped by the appropriate difficulty in Foundry. For progressing through a new raid tier, you may not kill a particular boss this week, but the upgrades your raid group gathered along the way will make things smoother and improve your chances the following week. That should be the essence of raid experience. So the devs need to make adjustments to stimulate players to head towards.

A 5 level increase will affect all items you have had and will gain from the Foundry. Thus instead of an item level range of 650/665/680/695 for Raid Finder/Normal/Heroic/Mythic Blackrock Foundry, the loot awarded will now be item level 655/670/685/700 respectively.

Besides, the wow item level of the new highest-tier crafted and Apexis vendor items will also be increased by 5.

Thus, with BRF item boost of wow, all players can intrude into higher difficulty of bosses for better rewards. If you need cheap wow gold online en route, you can visit Wowtoes to purchase, where you can get 6% discount using code “WOW6OFF”. Have fun!


We promise our gold is lowest price! ! We also have gears ,pet ,powerleveling!

Now buy all WOW products with this 8% discount code – 8OFFWTE! No phone called, No email confirmed, No presonal info asked !
I put a squabble over loot right up there with going to the dentist – both are equal bottom on my list of ‘awesome things to do with my time’ and the longer you avoid it, the more it festers.
WoW’s new flexible raiding system has put an end to much of the nonsense surrounding team selection (see /g chat Aug 2012: Swings, Roundabouts and Blenders) but it’s created a few new problems too and how to divvy up the plunder is one of them. Now that raid sizes and team make-up can change at a whim, I’d thought we’d take a look at how some of the loot systems are holding up under the pressure.
Highest roll wins is a no-maintenance way for guilds to split up the loot and thus, the staple of many a raid team. It’s the Fox News of loot systems – fair and balanced. (And I mean by that, not fair or balanced in any way). It doesn’t distribute loot evenly, doesn’t reward people for putting in an effort, and doesn’t care that you altrusitically passed for someone you believe deserves the gear more. It’s RNG and, personally I think, way too popular for its own good – just like Fox News. RNG’s bell curve flattens out nicely over many thousands of rolls. However, over the hundred or so rolls your team will make during an entire tier, it’s near certain that a lucky third of your players will be sitting pretty and start pushing to move on to new content. The unlucky third will end the tier with one or two upgrades after weeks of raiding while the middling third will staunchly and rather zealously hold no opinion at all. I think you all know which group you’re in.
Bottom line, outside of dungeon PUGs, the only people RNG serves are guild officers and MMO developers. They’re the ones spared the effort of imagining, creating and maintaining better, more engaging and fairer mechanics and, because the system is inherently impartial, any disputes can be also be effortlessly dismissed with a quick “don’t blame me, blame rngesus” or a cheeky “sort it out amongst yourselves”. Enough RNG, I say! It’s time to rise up from our puddle of complacency and demand a little more from the powers that be.

Homemade propane foundry furnace melt aluminium metal tutorial how to build part 1 of 4. Aluminum

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Introduction to Silicon Wafers used in Electronics


Foundry outside
Image by Plucker
Having a drink outside The Foundry

Silicon wafers are actually semiconductor devices that are heavily used in today’s electronics. To some, these micro devices may seem dismissible but they really have important uses in technology. Silicon wafers are primarily used in manufacturing computer chips. Every electronic device that you enjoy these days contains these tiny yet very significant wafers.

Generally, silicon is a good conductor of electricity. If you have it altered, not only will it conduct electricity, you can also make good use of it as an effective insulator. What’s amazing about these sophisticated wafers is that manufacturers only use regular beach sand particles as the main ingredient in the manufacturing process. Everyone knows that sand also acts as a lightning conductor, and the same technology is also utilized in both computer and electronic circuit boards.

The sand used in the wafer manufacturing process is being closely monitored. It must be kept clean at all times, free from any debris. Whenever the manufacturing process is contaminated due to foreign material inclusion, wafers with faulty connections are created. These bad wafers are costly mistakes, thus the manufacturing of silicon wafers must take place in a strictly regulated environment. It must be handled with extreme care by professional and experienced technicians.

Technically, the device can be described as a thin, circular disc mainly used in the semiconductor and integrated circuit manufacturing. There are also other recognized types in the industry like the Gallium Arsenide or the SOI, which is basically silicon on insulator. These are also utilized in electronics, requiring a careful and thorough manufacturing for efficient end products.

Specialized companies that operate a MEMS foundry create these devices. During the manufacturing process of the thin film, the wafers produced can come in various sizes and desired specifications. The composition can include so many components before the fabrication is completed. After this, the finished product is then packaged carefully for distribution.

A special compound is used to clean the finished product. It guarantees consistency so it will not be altered in any way. The cleaner material used is some weak acid adequate enough to remove impurities of any kind. It also takes care of the various issues within the sawing process.

The various sizes in the finished products make up for the different applications, though they are generally determined based on the component’s mechanical strengths. And even though the sizes vary, these wafers are manufactured in between 100 mm. to about 300 mm. in diameter. These parts and pieces vary in their costs and dependent of course on the size and usage.

The machinery involved in the manufacturing and cutting of these parts can cost a fortune, or likely that of a small factory. Manufacturing and perfecting such small but vital electronic components costs a great deal. There is no other way of going around the process just to save on the manufacturing costs at the least.

All these tiny yet important pieces are integrated in various electronic applications all over the world today. Computer systems are among the obvious benefactors, including mobile phone technology and digital appliances. There is a clear revolution in the world of electronics and silicon wafers are at the forefront, continuously doing wonders for this electronics-dependent world.

Jessica entered the Semiconductor Manufacturing field in 1998. Jessica has held positions at Integrated Micromachines and Xponent Photonics prior to founding Rogue Valley Microdevices, specializing in silicon wafers and establishing it as one of the leading MEMS foundry and manufacturing facilities.

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Casting Metal Hobbies, Home Metal Casting, Home Foundry Information


Perran Foundry
Image by Tim Green aka atoach

The Do It Yourself movement is certainly not a new one. The term, DIY was popularized in the 1950s but the concept has been around for ages. The concept behind DIY is undertaking a variety of projects either home improvement, restoration, or arts and craft without the help of paid professionals.

Recently the DIY movement has received a boost of popularity with the aid of the internet. Many are finding that DIY projects are easier to undertake with the help of instructional websites which provide step by step instructions and real advice from people who have actually accomplished the DIY process. Several of these sites provide ideas, photos, message boards, and a sense of community for Do It Yourselfers that was simply not available years ago.

DIY projects can include any number or projects and ideas. Certainly the most common projects include home improvement such as cabinetry or installing plumbing fixtures, but one of the oldest DIY projects has to be metal casting.

The DIY casting movement has been around ever since metal casting itself has been around, which is quite some time. Metal casting is the act of taking molten metal and shaping it with the use of molds into something new. Metal casting has been used in the ancient world for the use of making weapons, jewelry, and even religious icons. Today, DIY metal casting is used to create parts and items for use in a variety of hobbies and restoration projects. This includes home improvement items as well. Metal casting can be used to make door knobs, cabinet handles, and other such items. For hobbyists, small model parts and miniatures can be created. Even artists use metal casting for sculptures and jewelry creation.

Metal casting possesses the true spirit of Do It Yourself. Many metal casters are drawn to the skill because it provides a cheap alternative to purchasing items or having commercial foundries make custom items. Nearly everything used in metal casting can be made by the caster. The furnace, molds, tools, and many others are made by most casters.

Like other DIY projects, the DIY casting movement is being helped along my communities that are found online. These communities act as meeting grounds for casters to share and exchange knowledge and ideas, not to mention blueprints for furnaces and ingredients for casting materials.

Metal casting is the pinnacle of DIY projects as it involves the fabrication of items from metal. After creating a mold of the desired item the caster will melt down iron, brass, or aluminum in a furnace. The molten alloy is poured into the mold and allowed to cool. The cast is removed to reveal a copy of the original pattern. There are several casting methods so undertaking a DIY casting project can be very involved and addicting.

In the spirit of DIY, metal casters strive to make the best for the least. A great source for aluminum is soda cans and many casters gladly travel to scrap yards for iron or brass.

The DIY casting movement is really gaining steam as many realize how cheap and fun this alternative is.

Go to Metal Casting Zone to get your free ebook on Metal Casting at Casting. Metal Casting Zone also has Home Made Foundry Forum, Home Metal Casting Blog and a Metal Casting Blog with daily news on Metal Casting. You can Find Metal Casting Zone at

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